Referencing style guide


  1. General
  2. Using a Reference Manager or online automation
  3. Manual Referencing
  4. References / Bibliography 


If you have never formatted citations and references for a journal article, you may find this introduction from Cite Them Right helpful.

MedEdPublish uses a referencing style based on the Harvard Cite them Right 9th Edition, which is an author-date style. In the References section, the DOIs are also cited, if available. Note that this style requires all authors to be inserted in the bibliography, but, if a reference has more than four authors, then MedEdPublish allows you to cite only the first four authors, followed by “et al.

We strongly recommend the use of reference management software to collate and format your references. There are a number of very effective free versions if your organisation does not subscribe to a particular product. Most good reference management software will:
  • Allow automatic import of the correct bibliographic data from an online source, including DOIs where available;
  • Include an add-in for Microsoft Word which will automatically format both your in-text citations and your reference list;
  • Allow you to change citation styles quickly and easily if you have previously formatted the list for a different journal.
If you choose not to use a reference manager you must read these guidelines carefully and make sure your references are correctly formatted.
Incorrectly formatted references are the number one reason for papers being returned to the author.

Using a Reference Manager or online automation

If you are using a Reference Manager, then download and install the appropriate AMEE MedEdPublish style:
  • Citavi: The AMEE MedEdPublish style has already been added into the Citavi software.
  • EndNote: found here
  • Mendeley or Zotero: found here
To install the style file into the respective Reference Manager, first save the style file to a known location.


  • In MS-Word, on the Citavi ribbon, click the name of the currently selected Citation style.
  • Click Add citation style.
  • Enter “AMEE MedEdPublish” in the Name field.
  • Select the desired style and click Apply.


  • Close Mendeley; close MS-Word.
  • Copy this style file into the folder where the other Mendeley style files are (on a Windows Machine, it should be in C:\Program Files (x86)\Mendeley Desktop\citationStyles-1.0 on a Mac, it should be Applications\Mendeley\ Desktop\Contents\Resources\citaionStyle-1.0)
  • Open Mendeley, and the style should be listed with your other styles


  • Open MS-Word.
  • In MS-Word, From the Zotero Tab, slick on Add Citation
  • It will open a list of styles. Just below the list of styles, click on Manage Styles.
  • It will open the Style Manager.
  • Click on the button with the '+' sign - it is a browse button, and you can browse to the .csl file.


  • Double-Click on the style file, and it will open in EndNote.
  • With the Style open, select File | Save As.
  • Replace the word copy with the style’s name.
  • Click Save.
  • Open the EndNote Library, go to select another style, and select the AMEP style from the list.
If you have no reference manager, then you can use free online reference generators, such as: Citation Machine at:
If the online referencing style does not automatically insert the DOI, then you will need to insert that manually.

Manual Referencing

If you wish to perform all your referencing manually, then please see this brief set of examples below.

In-text citing examples


One author:

  • Format: surname comma date
  • Example: This author said this (Hrastinski, 2009).

Two authors:

  • Format: first-surname and second-surname comma date
  • Example: These authors said this (Moro and McLean, 2017).

Three authors:

  • Format: first-surname comma second-surname and third-surname comma date
  • Example: These authors said this (Anbalagan, Kumar and Bijlani, 2015).

Four and more authors:

  • Format: first-surname et al. comma date
  • These authors said this (Baernstein et al., 2007).

References / Bibliography

References are to be listed in alphabetical order of first author’s surname.

Journal Article, one author only:

Hrastinski, S. (2009) ‘A theory of online learning as online participation’, Computers and Education. 52(1), pp. 78–82.

Journal Article, two authors only:

Moro, C. and McLean, M. (2017) ‘Supporting Students’ Transition to University and Problem-Based Learning’, Medical Science Educator, 27, pp. 353–361.

Journal Article, three authors only:

Anbalagan, R., Kumar, A. and Bijlani, K. (2015) ‘Footprint Model for Discussion Forums in MOOC’, Procedia Computer Science, 58, pp. 530–537.

Journal Article, four authors only:

Baernstein, A., Liss, H. K., Carney, P. A. and Elmore, J. G. (2007) ‘Trends in study methods used in undergraduate medical education research, 1969-2007’, JAMA, 298(9), pp. 1038– 1045.

Journal Article, five authors and more:

Atesok, K., Satava, R. M., Van Heest, A., Hogan, M. C. V., et al. (2016) ‘Retention of skills after simulation-based training in orthopaedic surgery’, Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 24(8), pp. 505–514.

Chapter in a book:

Masters, K. (2018) ‘Health Informatics Ethics’, in Hoyt, R. E. and Hersch, W. R. (eds) Health Informatics: Practical Guide. 7th edn. Pensacola, Florida: Informatics Education, pp. 233–251.


Buckman, R. (1992) How to Break Bad News: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Cabral-Isabedra, C. (2016) Google strikes deal with NHS that gives AI unit access to 1.6 million patient records, Tech Times. Available at: (Accessed: 17 May 2016).

Conference Proceedings:

Wiedenbeck, S., LaBelle, D. and Kain, V. (2004) ‘Factors affecting course outcomes in introductory programming’, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop of the Psychology of Programming Interest Group, (April), pp. 97–110. Available at: (Accessed: 17 May 2016).